Had same thing – problem was with WebLink plugin after some update.
Locate Acrobat Plug-ins folder (right click on Adobe Acrobat Pro in Applications and select Show Package Contents), remove folder WebLink.acroplugin or replace it with previous version from backup, and restart Acrobat. Not sure if this plugin is big lost, but at least you should have your Acrobat running.
A bug like this should really be a shame for Adobe devs
I’ve had problems with Adobe Acrobat Reader Pro since I don’t know when (more than 2 years). Today I found an answer even though I have googled the issue many times. Also, just like the poster in the forum, I find it really disappointing that Adobe has not acknowledged the bug or fixed it.